Currently there is an array of design solutions on the demand side that can be applied to reduce the peak capacity (and energy) requirements from the grid. They are generally dealt with under the term DER (distribution energy resources) but can include distributed generation (DG), where customer has a generating resource that can come on line at time of peak and reduce utility's requirement to supply peak capacity, or demand response (DR), where the customer moves part of its demand away from the peak time for the electricity system and brings it back at low system load. Of course both of these solutions will have to be contractual, that is the utility will rely on these measures to be taken by the customer for it to defer its investment on peak capacity. The benefit for the customer being reduced electricity rates because of lower consumption at peak capacity time and the deferring the utility investment in capacity. DR is an easier and less costly solution for the utility as it does not interfere with grid's operations. It just reduces the load on the system at peak and makes it resurface at off peak when capacity is available on the grid's supply and distribution systems. DG is more impactful on the grids in its integration, as it injects power into it. It will increase, for example, short circuit levels at distribution nodes, change the reach of protective relays on distribution feeders, or cause intolerable reverse power flows on system transformers. Hence the need for further investment on the grid components, to be upgraded and become compatible with the new operational mode. It is generally understood that up to 15% DG is tolerable by the grid systems and above that level upgrades will be needed. DG is particularly attractive, economically, if it is used as CHP. That is if heat is also required by the DG host the electricity thus produced is only priced for its portion of fuel consumption (diesel generator with CHP on it). DR has another benefit, for systems with large solar generation in them that will face a fast rising demand level near dusk when the solar goes off, and system night peak is approaching. By removing load through DR the rate of increase in generation will slow down and hence less investment needed on fast ramping generation such as gas turbines. Finally are the new comers in the DER scene such as hybrid solar/battery or wind/battery systems that make the need for capacity provision from the utility significantly reduced. These combinations will need utility as the ultimate capacity provider in cases of long outages in the renewable source generation. In all, there are numerous ways to design the DER systems depending on the load requirements and resource availabilities at the locales and the utility's financial vehicles that incentivizes such systems.
Insights on how to integrate production, transmission and distribution systems with demand management?
- Apr 13, 2021 2:24 pm GMT
The topic I am dealing with is finding a way to integrate production, transmission and distribution systems with demand management. Today all the effort devoted to production management and distribution are the dominant ones in the design and construction of national electrical systems. The issue of demand management does not actually affect system design and has a marginal effect on system operation. As a result, the system is built to meet the peaks of daily, annual and multi-year demand, and the result is an inefficient and extremely expensive system. My intention is to develop ways of managing demand so that it can be introduced already at the system design stage and in this way significantly improve the efficiency of the system and the costs of setting it up and operating it. Do you have knowledge on the subject?
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