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Question

What are the implications of Hydrogen Injection into Diesel and BioDiesel engines?

Brandon Kulow's picture
Entrepreneur Mouseion LLC

Entrepeneur looking to assist in the flourishing of all solar, green hydrogen, Geothermal, and innovative sustainable and regenerative sources of energy.  

  • Member since 2021
  • 2 items added with 927 views
  • Dec 27, 2021
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To start the post off I've had some very insightful ideas in relation to implementing hydrogen direct injection into diesel engines. Looking to communicate with more researchers, engineers, and (most unfortunately law makers haha ) but all views are welcome as well I'm looking into what are the actual implications of doing so?

From EPA regulations to what seems to be the main hurdles here? From all of my research this looks to be an extremely viable solution to a transition to something much more efficient overall.

I am aware of Hydrives system that runs off the alternator of the vehicle to power the system. Leading to many drastic benefits in performance and emissions results. So what's the hurdles here? Also what are the Emissions laws related to the DEF system being removed to go for something much more effective like this? Or is anyone aware of integration with this type of injection being used simultaneously with Biodiesel fuels? Or even other areas of directing this question towards are very much so appreciated. Lets conversate?

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I have no direct knowledge of hydrogen injection into diesel engines. I would think that theoretically, if the substitution of hydrogen for some of the diesel fuel does not change the operating conditions (temperature and pressure) within the diesel engine, there will  likely be little to no improvement in efficiency when the parasitic loads of introducing hydrogen are considered. CO2 will be reduced however by displacing carbon in the fuel as it is burned.

I am not an expert on IC engine technology.  However, from a combustion standpoint, typically increased hydrogen content of fuels leads to higher NOx emissions, typically by a factor of 4.  For IC engines, the situation is somewhat more complicated in that the engine is cooled and the gas flow path is variable, even during steady operation due to the piston going up and down and the gas being aspirated into the engine.  The best paper on the subject that I found was as follows:

 

Elsevier

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Volume 39, Issue 27, 12 September 2014, Pages 15088-15102

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Effect of hydrogen-diesel fuel co-combustion on exhaust emissions with verification using an in–cylinder gas sampling technique

Author links open overlay panelMidhatTalibiPaulHellierRamanarayananBalachandranNicosLadommatos

 

The results indicate that at low loads on the engine, there is a slight reduction of NOx.  However, as the load on the engine increases, the production of NOx increases steeply with hydrogen addition.  These NOx results would represent a problem for passing emissions tests, particularly in the US.  For those IC engines that are not used in motor vehicles, the problem is more severe, in that engines are typically certified by testing at the OEM prior to sale of that type of engine.  Operating a certified engine in a non-certified manner causes the engine to lose certification and require annual emissions testing, along with maintenance reporting and record keeping.  This would be true even for standby diesel generators.

 

The HYDRIVES system is a maintenance procedure that cleans the engine of carbon deposits using hydrogen.  The car is taken to a shop that has the machine that generates the hydrogen.  A hole is drilled in the intake hose and hydrogen is aspirated into the engine while it is running for about 10 minutes.  That is usually long enough to burn out the carbon deposits and clean up the engine.  The car is then returned to the owner in a cleaner condition and, consequently, runs better without any additional hydrogen fuel.  That is not the same thing as adding hydrogen to the fuel on a continuous basis for normal operation.

 

That is the sum total of my experience on the subject.  The US DOE is looking at hydrogen for a number of applications, including the addition of hydrogen to natural gas as well as pure hydrogen combustion.  I am not familiar with their programs on IC engines.

Brandon Kulow's picture
Brandon Kulow on Dec 28, 2021

That's very interesting Carl that study seems to contradict every other study I've researched into that the hydrogen injection into diesel specifically helps along the whole spectrum of performance and emissions its a matter of injecting and maintaining the proper amount. In most cases almost entirely eliminated NOx emissions. 

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