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Dr. Amal Khashab's picture
Expert Independent Consultant ,Electric Power Systems Engineering Free lancer

Summary Full Academic Qualification by obtaining B.Sc. (1971), M.Sc. (1980) and Ph.D. (1991) of Electric Power Engineering. Active continuous education by participating in long periods of...

  • Member since 2019
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  • Sep 1, 2020




The Traditional Architecture

The traditional organization of power systems inherently implies a centralized architecture comprising three distinct levels: generation, transmission, and distribution. At the top level, bulk generation based on fossil fuels, nuclear or large hydropower stations produce the electrical energy that is conveyed first through long distances using high voltage (HV)or extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines, and then using lower voltage levels through distribution networks to the end users.

Although their intermittency, Wind farms are connected with the transmission network, while PV farms are connected with the sub-transmission network.

The advent of distribute generators (DG) is essentially altering this paradigm by having power injections directly in the distribution network. As long as only small amounts of distributed energy flows occur, a traditional fit-and-forget approach can be suitable and no fundamental changes need to be introduced.


The Micro grid Architecture

With the integration of distribute generators (DG) in distribution networks, more complex architectures are required to be able to operate the global system. This is necessary if a real active network management scheme is to be implemented and there is the intention to take advantage of the presence of these types of resources for control and management purposes .

The microgrid concept implies that a microgrid central controller (MGCC) is to be installed at MV/LV secondary substation level. This controller is dedicated to ensuring a safe operation of the microgrid system by including a set of control functionalities and serves as an interface to the main distribution grid and the central distribution management system (DMS). It also relies on a set of distributed controllers located at the customers' premises, namely microsource controllers (MCs) to interface small microgeneration units or storage devices and load controllers (LCs) that interface electrical loads. The MGCC is able to send set points to individual controllers (either MCs and LCs) in order to control individual resources. The microgrid architecture is shown in Figure 2.

The Multi Microgrid Architecture

- This architecture was further extended in the EU project “Advanced Architectures and Control Concepts for More MicroGrids” (MORE MICROGRIDS). A multimicrogrid system is defined as a higher level control layer at the MV level that consists of a set of microgrids and distribute generators (DG) units connected to the MV grid on different feeders.

- In this context, distribute generators (DG) sources, microgrids, and controllable loads are considered as active cells . Similar to what happens in a microgrid, a multimicrogrid system has a central controller dubbed central autonomous management controller (CAMC) located at the MV side of the HV/MV primary substation being responsible for managing the MV network located downstream. The CAMC is expected to encompass some of the functions typically assigned to a demand side management (DMS) and become responsible for interfacing the multimicrogrid system with the central systems (DMS) and lower level controllers (MGCCs) and remote terminal units (RTUs).

- For example, it is responsible for controlling the resources connected directly to the MV network, namely capacitor banks or On Load Tap Changing (OLTC) transformers (for instance, for voltage control purposes), but also other entities such as DG units, large industrial loads, and microgrids in a coordinated way. The multimicrogrid architecture is shown in Figure 3.



Dr. Amal Khashab's picture
Thank Dr. Amal for the Post!
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