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US Lagging in Green Jobs

David Levy's picture
University of Massachusetts, Boston (UMB)

David L. Levy received his doctorate from Harvard Business School and is now a Professor of Management and Chair of the Department of Management and Marketing at the University of Massachusetts...

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  • Nov 11, 2010

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New Clean Edge  jobs report shows the Boston region is doing relatively well, but the U.S. is lagging in green jobs

by Joshua Rinaldi and David Levy

Joshua Rinaldi is a first year doctoral student in the McCormack School of Public Policy and Global Studies at the University of Massachusetts, Boston.

A recent Clean Tech Jobs Outlook Report estimated that in 2009 there were more than 3 million jobs in the renewable energy field globally. The report indicates, however, that the US is falling further behind in this field; the bulk of these jobs are now in China and Brazil.

The CleanEdge report points to several trends that suggest that, while the world is moving toward a green economy, the United States may be lagging. Solar panel production is expanding in Mexico where some U.S. companies have outsourced manufacturing for the lower wages. In the automobile and other sectors, Mexico has been a very attractive destination for outsourcing because its proximity to the U.S. enables logistical integration of supply chains, and because of the NAFTA free trade area.

About 70 percent of hardware and technology used in U.S. clean-energy installations are constructed overseas, according to the report. “Essentially, clean-tech manufacturing has run up against the same economic realities as countless industries that came before, from clothing to computer chips to cell phones: it’s very hard for the U.S. to compete with overseas labor costs, particularly in the developing world.” For example, BP Solar closed its Frederick, Maryland, PV plant in March 2010 and moved most of the 320 jobs abroad. This is also a sign of the surprisingly rapid maturation of the industry, as solar panels rapidly become low-value added commodities.

If this trend holds true, then the main non-exportable jobs in renewables will be related to project  planning, finance, permitting, installation and the maintenance of solar panels and wind turbines. While that is encouraging, the report cites the Renewable Energy Project, a think tank in Washington D.C., as saying that maintenance and installation makes up only 30 percent of the total labor involved with these projects. Of course, numerous early-stage clean tech firms are conducting their R&D and initial manufacturing in the U.S., but many of these look to manufacture overseas as soon as products enter large-scale commercial production.

Based on the report, China is the most likely destination for the roughly 60 percent of jobs related to manufacturing in clean tech supply chain: “No other country comes close to matching the active role being taken by China to supercharge its clean-tech initiatives.” China, the world’s second largest economy behind the United States, now outspends both the U.S. and the European Union in terms of clean tech research dollars. Its $34.6 billion in clean energy investment in 2009 was just shy of double the $18.6 billion in investments in the United States.

China also topped the U.S. in presence on the global top 10 publicly traded pure-play clean tech companies list, which represent just short of 100,000 employees. China has six of the top 10 (when the Hong Kong facility is included) and the United States has only two.

top_ten_clean firms2009

A comparison with the 2009 Clean Edge report shows the growth of China in the field. China’s presence on the list doubled in one year while the U.S. actually has one less company listed in 2010. (The 2009 report quoted a Pew Charitable Trust report that gave an estimate of 770,000 clean tech jobs in the United States, but the 2010 report did not cite a comparable figure for 2010).

The report does offer a few nuggets of hope for particular regions in the United States, as some cities are developing thriving clean tech clusters. The good news is mostly local. The Boston metropolitan area is ranked as the best place for clean tech jobs east of California based on job presence, job postings, investment activity and patent activity.

The report ranks the Boston metropolitan area third for clean tech job activity, behind only San Francisco and Los Angeles. Boston moved up one spot from its 2009 ranking to overtake New York City in the standings. In addition to the top spots, California claims two other cities in the top 15 metro areas for green job growth. A good portion of California’s job growth stems from aggressive smart grid expansion from high-powered companies like Google, Cisco and Intel. This is testament to the fact that clean tech jobs are not limited to traditional renewables, but are  increasingly at the intersection of  IT, telecoms, and energy efficiency.

top clean tech regions2009

About 6 percent of the federal stimulus money, around $50 billion, is aimed at green jobs. This amount includes loans and grants for direct investment in manufacturing, electric grid improvements and public transportation as well as loans for green improvements. Substantial U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) loan guarantees encouraged Spanish wind-turbine generator company Ingeteam to employ about 270 workers at a new plant announced in March outside Milwaukee, while Spain-based Talgo plans to hire 125 employees to build high-speed rail cars at a former auto parts factory in North Milwaukee,” according to the report.

If the United States is to conquer large sections of this market, the report recommends the country continues to invest in green infrastructure, raise fuel efficiency standards and make its renewable portfolio standards (RPS) stronger. The Obama administration has made a very targeted commitment of around $2.4 billion for alternative fuel vehicles, electric drive chains, and high-density batteries, with Michigan receiving the lion’s share. For instance, the report indicates the Department of Energy made a $465 million loan to electric-car maker Tesla Motors in April. Nine advanced electric-vehicle battery plants have opened in the U.S., with support from these funds. Yet these highly automated new plants employ far fewer people than the old auto factories they replace. Moreover, this is a very risky bet, because it could be many years before a mass market emerges for purely electric vehicles. Not only do they still face substantial hurdles relating to cost, range, and recharging infrastructure, but pure electrics can have very poor carbon emissions profiles if they rely on a coal-intense grid for recharging.

While some parts of global green value chains are highly mobile, some manufacturing is always attracted to locations close to large markets. Labor is an increasingly small proportion of manufacturing costs in highly-automated production systems, and large multinational corporations prefer some operations close to markets to reduce supply disruptions and to learn about consumer demand. They also prefer to spread operations around major regions in order to diversify political and economic risks, and reduce protectionist pressures. Even the Chinese are now playing this game. As the report notes, “In August, Chinese wind-turbine maker A-Power Energy Generation Systems and wind developer partner Shenyang Power Group said they will work with the United Steelworkers, America’s largest industrial union, to supply the steel for components at a 615 MW Shenyang wind farm in west Texas.”

The overall trend is not positive, however, for the U.S.  According to the report, “The U.S. trade deficit in renewable-energy products soared 1,400 percent to almost $5.7 billion between 2004 and 2009, according to a January 2010 report from the office of U.S. Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Oregon).” Trade and employment go hand in hand, so this points to a major challenge if the U.S. is to secure its position in this sector.

The SJF Institute, the not-for-profit arm of SJF Ventures, released the annual Clean Tech Job Trends in October.

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Geoffrey Styles's picture
Geoffrey Styles on Nov 11, 2010

Joshua and David,

Your analysis does a good job of explaining why promoting renewables as a way to create US jobs is bound to result in disappointment.  This is not the first report to show that when we push renewable energy deployment without first addressing the fundamental challenges facing US manufacturing, we might get more green electrons, but the majority of the resulting “green jobs” are created overseas. The exploding trade imbalance in cleantech that you cite is another unintended consequence of our hastily conceived “green jobs” strategy. Ramping up RPS targets or adding a new federal RES without making our manufacturing base more competitive seems unlikely to improve matters, any more than focusing new manufacturing on a largely aspirational US EV market, rather than on the burgeoning global cleantech market.  If reducing our emissions is our top priority, then it shouldn’t matter whether the effort produces US green jobs or not, but that’s not how these measures have been sold to the public.  On the other hand if jobs are what we want, this is not the best way to go about it.

Your analysis also omits another substantial advantage that countries like China and Brazil enjoy over the US in this area, beyond lower wages.  Both countries have rapidly growing energy demand, requiring massive investment in all energy infrastructure, while US energy demand has plateaued, and we are focused mainly on upgrading our networks and generation to improve efficiency and reliability and reduce emissions.  The difference creates a huge gap in the relative economic driving forces behind these efforts.

Roger Dunn's picture
Roger Dunn on Feb 24, 2011

All excellent points.

With that said,  will it be possible to get a “green job” in Boston if I have a background in energy efficiency, renewable energy, an Engineering degree from Northwestern, MBA from Taiwan University, fluency in Mandarin Chinese?

I am currently in Hawaii but looking to get closer to the R&D, design, manufacturing of “cleantech”.

Hawaii is too small of a market and too conservative and slow to change.

email is:

Roger Dunn's picture
Roger Dunn on Feb 24, 2011

or should I just move to China?

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