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Energy research: Economizing on iridium

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chief magnet HATVANI SSR - STRATEGIC SUPPLYCHAIN REDUNDANCY

Raw materials are crucial to the economy. They form a strong industrial base in which a wide range of goods and applications of daily life as well as modern technologies are produced. Reliable...

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The Future of Hydrogen through

Iridium

 

Renewable electricity

 

Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment. IEA analysis finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable electricity could fall 30% by 2030 as a result of declining costs of renewables and the scaling up of hydrogen production. Hydrogen is today enjoying unprecedented momentum. The world should not miss this unique chance to make hydrogen an important part of our clean and secure energy future!

 

 

Energy research 
Economizing on
iridium

 

 

Iridium is an ideal catalyst

 

Iridium is an ideal catalyst for the electrolytic production of hydrogen from water - but it is extremely expensive. But now a new kind of electrode made of highly porous material does an excellent job with just a hint of iridium.

 

Today, the royal road to the effective electrolysis of water for the production of hydrogen gas in so called proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers is to reduce the amount of catalytically highly active but scare nobel metal iridium and at the same time maintain the hydrogen output. In this type of electrolyzer cell the hydrogen ions migrate via a proton exchange membrane from the oxygen producing anode to the hydrogen producing cathode. The membrane-based technique offers many advantages

 

The catalyst coated membrane itself is very thin, which makes the electrolytic cell itself small and more versatile, and the absence of a liquid electrolyte means that the whole system requires virtually no maintenance. Such cells also allow hydrogen production at elevated pressures facilitating and lowing the energy demand for further storage as compressed gas. Finally dynamic load operation is possible with the PEM-technology to react to fluctuations in available current within seconds which renders it suitable for the coupling to renewable energy sources.

 

But the technology also has one major drawback. Formation of oxygen at the anode is dependent on the use of iridium oxide (IrO2) as a catalyst. IrO2 is a very stable and efficient promoter of this reaction. The problem is that iridium itself is rarer than gold or even platinum, and it is at least as expensive as the latter. Many attempts have been made to find an alternative, but nothing yet tested approaches the long-term stability and catalytic activity of iridium oxide.

 

 

 

 

Just a dash of
iridium
is enough

 

 

Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet (LMU)

Now Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich-based chemists involved in the Cluster of Excellence e-conversion, in collaboration with a team at Forschungszentrum Jülich, have succeeded in increasing the yield of hydrogen by a factor of 8 (relative to a commercial reference electrode) by using a novel and highly porous material as catalyst. This success implies that it should be possible to develop an electrolytic cell that achieves the same efficiency as current iridium-based systems but requires only 10% as much iridium.
 


Kopernikus

The new electrode was developed within the framework of the Kopernikus Power-2-X Research Network, which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. Its design and performance characteristics are described in a paper published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials. The system makes use of a novel high-porosity oxidic support on which iridium can be evenly dispersed as a thin film, which is easily accessible to water molecules and exhibits high catalytic activity.

 

Loading the catalyst
into every

single pore

 

nanostructured

The team first synthesized nanostructured and conductive antimony-doped tin oxide microparticles. These particles provide a highly porous scaffold for binding of the iridium catalyst. They then prepared an aqueous colloidal suspension of iridium oxide nanoparticles, which were loaded into the porous microparticles by means of a solvothermal reaction at high temperature and pressure. This resulted in the reduction of the iridium oxide particles to metallic Iridium.

 

coated

A final thermal oxidation step then led to the formation of iridium oxide nanoparticles within the pores of the metallic scaffold. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy confirmed that every last cavity in the scaffold was coated with a thin film of the catalyst. And indeed, electrodes coated with the new material passed the final test with flying colors. In terms of activity, i.e. hydrogen generation, the efficiency per gram of bound iridium exceeded that of a commercially available PEM by no less than eightfold.

 

optimized

As the paper's first author Daniel Böhm points out, the synthesis procedure has one huge advantage. "We can now focus on optimizing each parameter individually. The relevant factors that can be adjusted include the composition, structure and pore size of the material, its conductivity and the level of loading with iridium. In the end we will obtain a highly active, fully optimized system. All the steps in the synthetic route are also compatible with the demands of industrial-scale production, so the approach might be ripe for technical application within a relatively short time."

 

used

The material currently used in commercial electrolyzers must meet very high standards in order to guarantee stable operation over many years. Upcoming projects that will address this issue are already planned, says Prof. Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing of Forschungszentrum Jülich. "First, we want to synthesize even more stable catalysts with the aid of novel nanoarchitectures. And then we would like to investigate how the properties of these materials behave when subjected to operational conditions over longer periods of time."

 

 

Annual review 2020
Jülicher

 

 


How the Kopernikus project P2Xconverts renewable electricity
into plastics and fuels, gases & heat

To make Germany climate-neutral by 2050, the transport, industrial, and heating sectors require low-emissions solutions. The Kopernikus project P2X studies one of the most promising avenues for this: power-to-X technologies. These are technologies which convert renewably generated electricity into other forms of energy, for example fuels, plastics, heat, gases, chemicals, and cosmetics.

 

 

 

In order to limit global warming to under 2 °C Germany hopes to be largely climate-neutral by 2050.

This can only be achieved with the help of renewable energy – which means that solar, wind, and hydropower have to replace fossil fuels. The goal of the Kopernikus project P2X is to store renewable energy in physical substances. Accordingly, the project researches possibilities for converting electricity into chemical energy. The renewable energy stored in this way can then be used in high-emissions sectors such as transport and industry, or even for heating for industrial processes, making them more environmentally friendly.

 

Power-to-X electricity in, material solutions out

 

Scientists call the conversion of electricity into other substances “power-to-X”, or P2X for short. For example, power-to-gas produces gaseous substances such as hydrogen or methane. Power-to-chemicals produces chemicals that undergo further industrial processing. The result of power-to-fuel is environmentally friendly fuels, produced using carbon dioxide (CO2) captured from the air or exhaust gases. This approach enables a significant reduction in total emissions from fuel combustion.

 

In the second of three planned funding phases, the Kopernikus project P2X studies two source materials that can be produced with power-to-X technologies, one being hydrogen, and the other being syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Hydrogen is produced by applying electricity to water in a process called electrolysis. If CO2 is also added during electrolysis (co-electrolysis), syngas is produced.

 

Focus of hydrogen research within P2X

The hydrogen electrolysers studied in the P2X project currently require large amounts of the rare and expensive metal iridium. The P2X scientists are looking for possibilities to use as little iridium in electrolysis as possible – without the process losing efficiency as a result. Once the hydrogen has been produced, there are a number of uses for it. For example, the P2X researchers study how hydrogen together with CO2 can be converted into polymer components that the chemical industry urgently needs. Another potential use for hydrogen is as a fuel for road transport. Therefore, the P2X team also develops concepts for the optimal operation of hydrogen filling stations.

 

Because hydrogen burns at a high temperature, the P2X partners also study how industrial furnaces could be heated using hydrogen at a low cost. They are specifically testing this in a company that produces glass. One of the associated problems that needs to be overcome is that hydrogen can only be easily transported when in liquid form, which it only becomes at high pressure. This is complicated and expensive. Because of this, the P2X team also conducts research on temporarily bonding the hydrogen to liquids, known as liquid organic hydrogen carriers, thus making it easier to transport.

 

 

Syngas: raw material for fuel and cosmetics

In the field of syngas, research within P2X focuses mainly on possibilities for producing the gas mixture more efficiently than to date, since syngas has the potential to play a key role in the transformation of the transport sector. As yet, there is little to indicate that all trucks, ships, and airplanes will ever run exclusively on electricity. However, fuels that impact the environment much less negatively than modern fuels can be produced synthetically from syngas. The reason they cause less harm to the environment is that the CO2 that they emit when combusted was previously extracted from the air during production. P2X hopes to build a plant by 2022 that can produce 200 litres of synthetic fuel every day. Parts of this synthetic fuel can replace diesel, petrol, and even aircraft kerosene.

Finally, P2X researches how CO2 can be converted into chemicals on a large scale using microorganisms, for example for use in the cosmetics industry to produce creams and other toiletries. P2X is developing a roadmap to monitor the developments achieved in the various P2X technologies and assess them according to ecological, economic, and social sustainability criteria. Its results will then be reintegrated into the further development of the P2X technologies.

 

 

Achievements
so far through
Kopernikus project

 

1.Reduction of the iridium proportion in water electrolyzers

In order to break down water into oxygen and hydrogen through electrolysis, electrolysers that require iridium are being studied in the P2X project. This noble metal is extremely rare and in limited supply. P2X researchers managed to reduce the proportion of iridium in hydrogen electrolysis by a factor of 10 – without compromising on the output. This has made significantly more affordable production of hydrogen electrolysers possible. Further work is now being carried out to build on this success.

 

2.High temperature co-electrolyis with variable mixing ratio

Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. P2X uses it to produce raw materials for the chemical industry and for fuels. However, the necessary ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide varies depending on the product that is to be made. The project developed a method that converts water and CO2 into syngas in a single step at a temperature of 800 °C using electricity from renewable sources (solar, wind). The method used to do this is called high-temperature co-electrolysis. What makes the P2X plant so special is that it can produce syngas with differing mixing ratios of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Mixing ratios between 4:1 and 1:1 can be selected depending on the chosen ratio of the input mixture.

 

3.First integrated power-to-fuel plant worldwide

P2X put the world’s first integrated plant into operation to produce fuel from air and renewably generated electricity in four stages. Currently the plant, which is about the size of an industrial container, produces approximately ten litres of fuel daily. The successor model is scheduled to produce twenty times as much (200 litres) by 2022.

 

4.Efficient dehydration catalyst

Hydrogen can only be transported at high pressure or when liquefied at extremely low temperatures. Both methods are complex and expensive. However, a less energy-intensive option is to bond the hydrogen to a liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) and then transport it, and finally to separate it from the liquid again at the location where it is needed. In order to release the hydrogen from the liquid carrier, dehydrogenation catalysts are needed. P2X succeeded in developing a catalyst that can release large amounts of bound hydrogen without large quantities of noble metals. The P2X catalyst is so successful that it has already been launched commercially under the name “EleMax D101”.

 

5.OME production without precious metals

Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) can be used as low-emissions fuels and for producing plastics. The P2X researchers manufacture OMEs from carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and an alcohol called methanol. Until recently, however, they had to use expensive catalysts coated with rare noble metals for this process. Now the project has developed options for using catalysts that work without noble metals and achieve more efficient conversion.

 

I
international
E
energy
A
agency

 

 

From oil security to steering the world toward secure and sustainable energy transitions

 

 

 

 

1973-1974

Created in 1974 to ensure the security of oil supplies, the International Energy Agency has evolved over the years. While energy security remains a core mission, the IEA today is at the center of the global energy debate, focusing on a wide variety of issues, ranging from electricity security to investments, climate change and air pollution, energy access and efficiency, and much more. The IEA was born with the 1973-1974 oil crisis, when industrialised countries found they were not adequately equipped to deal with the oil embargo imposed by major producers that pushed prices to historically high levels.

 

energy policy

This first oil shock led to the creation of the IEA in November 1974 with a broad mandate on energy security and energy policy co-operation. This included setting up a collective action mechanism to respond effectively to potential disruptions in oil supply. The framework was anchored in the IEA treaty called the “Agreement on an International Energy Program,” with newly created autonomous Agency hosted at the OECD in Paris. The IEA was established as the main international forum for energy co-operation on a variety of issues such as security of supply, long-term policy, information transparency, energy efficiency, sustainability, research and development, technology collaboration, and international energy relations.

 

 

 

Hydrogen is today enjoying unprecedented momentum. The world should not miss this unique chance to make hydrogen an important part of our clean and secure energy future.

 

The Future of Hydrogen &
Seizing today’s opportunities

 

Clean hydrogen
At the request of the government of Japan under its G20 presidency, the International Energy Agency produced this landmark report to analyse the current state of play for hydrogen and to offer guidance on its future development. The report finds that clean hydrogen is currently enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum, with the number of policies and projects around the world expanding rapidly. It concludes that now is the time to scale up technologies and bring down costs to allow hydrogen to become widely used. The pragmatic and actionable recommendations to governments and industry that are provided will make it possible to take full advantage of this increasing momentum.

 

History
Hydrogen and energy have a long shared history – powering the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to becoming an integral part of the modern refining industry. It is light, storable, energy-dense, and produces no direct emissions of pollutants or greenhouse gases. But for hydrogen to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and power generation.

The Future of Hydrogen provides an extensive and independent survey of hydrogen that lays out where things stand now; the ways in which hydrogen can help to achieve a clean, secure and affordable energy future; and how we can go about realising its potential.

 

 

The time is right to tap into hydrogen’s potential to play a key role in a clean, secure and affordable energy future

 

At the request of the government of Japan under its G20 presidency, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has produced this landmark report to analyse the current state of play for hydrogen and to offer guidance on its future development. The report finds that clean hydrogen is currently enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum, with the number of policies and projects around the world expanding rapidly. It concludes that now is the time to scale up technologies and bring down costs to allow hydrogen to become widely used. The pragmatic and actionable recommendations to governments and industry that are provided will make it possible to take full advantage of this increasing momentum.

 

Hydrogen can help tackle various critical energy challenges

 

It offers ways to decarbonise a range of sectors – including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel – where it is proving difficult to meaningfully reduce emissions. It can also help improve air quality and strengthen energy security. Despite very ambitious international climate goals, global energy-related CO2 emissions reached an all time high in 2018. Outdoor air pollution also remains a pressing problem, with around 3 million people dying prematurely each year.

 

Hydrogen is versatile


Technologies already available today enable hydrogen to produce, store, move and use energy in different ways. A wide variety of fuels are able to produce hydrogen, including renewables, nuclear, natural gas, coal and oil. It can be transported as a gas by pipelines or in liquid form by ships, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can be transformed into electricity and methane to power homes and feed industry, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes.

 

Hydrogen can enable renewables to provide an even greater contribution


It has the potential to help with variable output from renewables, like solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind, whose availability is not always well matched with demand. Hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing energy from renewables and looks promising to be a lowest-cost option for storing electricity over days, weeks or even months. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels can transport energy from renewables over long distances – from regions with abundant solar and wind resources, such as Australia or Latin America, to energy-hungry cities thousands of kilometres away.

 

There have been false starts for hydrogen in the past  this time could be different


The recent successes of solar PV, wind, batteries and electric vehicles have shown that policy and technology innovation have the power to build global clean energy industries. With a global energy sector in flux, the versatility of hydrogen is attracting stronger interest from a diverse group of governments and companies. Support is coming from governments that both import and export energy as well as renewable electricity suppliers, industrial gas producers, electricity and gas utilities, automakers, oil and gas companies, major engineering firms, and cities. Investments in hydrogen can help foster new technological and industrial development in economies around the world, creating skilled jobs.

 

Hydrogen can be used much more widely


Today, hydrogen is used mostly in oil refining and for the production of fertilisers. For it to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it also needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent at the moment, such as transport, buildings and power generation.

 

 

clean & widespread use of hydrogen in global energy transitions faces several
challenges

 

Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment


IEA analysis finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable electricity could fall 30% by 2030 as a result of declining costs of renewables and the scaling up of hydrogen production. Fuel cells, refuelling equipment and electrolysers (which produce hydrogen from electricity and water) can all benefit from mass manufacturing.

 

The development of hydrogen infrastructure is slow and holding back widespread adoption


Hydrogen prices for consumers are highly dependent on how many refuelling stations there are, how often they are used and how much hydrogen is delivered per day. Tackling this is likely to require planning and coordination that brings together national and local governments, industry and investors.

 

Hydrogen is almost entirely supplied from natural gas and coal today


Hydrogen is already with us at industrial scale all around the world, but its production is responsible for annual CO2 emissions equivalent to those of Indonesia and the United Kingdom combined. Harnessing this existing scale on the way to a clean energy future requires both the capture of CO2 from hydrogen production from fossil fuels and greater supplies of hydrogen from clean electricity.

 

Regulations currently limit the development of a clean hydrogen industry


Government and industry must work together to ensure existing regulations are not an unnecessary barrier to investment. Trade will benefit from common international standards for the safety of transporting and storing large volumes of hydrogen and for tracing the environmental impacts of different hydrogen supplies.

 

 

The IEA has identified 4 near-term opportunities to boost hydrogen on the path towards its clean, widespread use

 

Focusing on these real-world springboards could help hydrogen achieve the necessary scale to bring down costs and reduce risks for governments and the private sector. While each opportunity has a distinct purpose, all four also mutually reinforce one another.

 

 

Make industrial ports the nerve centres for scaling up the use of clean hydrogen


Today, much of the refining and chemicals production that uses hydrogen based on fossil fuels is already concentrated in coastal industrial zones around the world, such as the North Sea in Europe, the Gulf Coast in North America and southeastern China. Encouraging these plants to shift to cleaner hydrogen production would drive down overall costs. These large sources of hydrogen supply can also fuel ships and trucks serving the ports and power other nearby industrial facilities like steel plants.

 

1.Build on existing infrastructure, such as millions of kilometres of natural gas pipelines


Introducing clean hydrogen to replace just 5% of the volume of countries’ natural gas supplies would significantly boost demand for hydrogen and drive down costs.

 

2.Expand hydrogen in transport through fleets, freight and corridors


Powering high-mileage cars, trucks and buses to carry passengers and goods along popular routes can make fuel-cell vehicles more competitive.

 

3.Launch the hydrogen trade’s first international shipping routes


Lessons from the successful growth of the global LNG market can be leveraged. International hydrogen trade needs to start soon if it is to make an impact on the global energy system.

 

4.International co‑operation is vital to accelerate the growth of versatile, clean hydrogen around the world


If governments work to scale up hydrogen in a co‑ordinated way, it can help to spur investments in factories and infrastructure that will bring down costs and enable the sharing of knowledge and best practices. Trade in hydrogen will benefit from common international standards. As the global energy organisation that covers all fuels and all technologies, the IEA will continue to provide rigorous analysis and policy advice to support international co‑operation and to conduct effective tracking of progress in the years ahead. As a roadmap for the future, we are offering seven key recommendations to help governments, companies and others to seize this chance to enable clean hydrogen to fulfil its long-term potential.

 

 

Perspective on renewables

 

 

 

Renewables, including solar, wind, hydro, biofuels and others, are at the centre of the transition to a less carbon-intensive and more sustainable energy system. Renewables have grown rapidly in recent years, driven by policy support and sharp cost reductions for solar photovoltaics and wind power in particular. The electricity sector remains the brightest spot for renewables with the strong growth of solar photovoltaics and wind in recent years, building on the already significant contribution of hydropower. But electricity accounts for only a fifth of global energy consumption, and the role of renewables in the transportation and heating sectors remains critical to the energy transition.

 

 

The resilience of renewables is driven by the electricity sector

 

In sharp contrast to all other fuels, renewables used for generating electricity will grow by almost 7% in 2020. Global energy demand is set to decline 5% – but long-term contracts, priority access to the grid and continuous installation of new plants are all underpinning strong growth in renewable electricity. This more than compensates for declines in bioenergy for industry and biofuels for transport – mostly the result of lower economic activity. The net result is an overall increase of 1% in renewable energy demand in 2020.

 

 

Renewable power needs to expand
significantly to meet the IEA Sustainable Development Scenario share of half of
generation by 2030

 

In 2019, renewable electricity generation rose 6%, with wind and solar PV technologies together accounting for 64% of this increase. Although the share of renewables in global electricity generation reached almost 27% in 2019, renewable power as a whole still needs to expand significantly to meet the SDS share of almost half of generation by 2030. This requires the rate of annual capacity additions to accelerate.


The IEA’s 7
key recommendations
to scale up hydrogen

 

1. Establish a role for hydrogen in long-term energy strategies


National, regional and city governments can guide future expectations. Companies should also have clear long-term goals. Key sectors include refining, chemicals, iron and steel, freight and long-distance transport, buildings, and power generation and storage.

2. Stimulate commercial demand for clean hydrogen


Clean hydrogen technogies are available but costs remain challenging. Policies that create sustainable markets for clean hydrogen, especially to reduce emissions from fossil fuel-based hydrogen, are needed to underpin investments by suppliers, distributors and users. By scaling up supply chains, these investments can drive cost reductions, whether from low‑carbon electricity or fossil fuels with carbon capture, utilisation and storage.

3. Address investment risks of first-movers 


New applications for hydrogen, as well as clean hydrogen supply and infrastructure projects, stand at the riskiest point of the deployment curve. Targeted and time-limited loans, guarantees and other tools can help the private sector to invest, learn and share risks and rewards.

4. Support R&D to bring down costs


Alongside cost reductions from economies of scale, R&D is crucial to lower costs and improve performance, including for fuel cells, hydrogen-based fuels and electrolysers (the technology that produces hydrogen from water). Government actions, including use of public funds, are critical in setting the research agenda, taking risks and attracting private capital for innovation.

5. Eliminate unnecessary regulatory barriers and harmonise standards


Project developers face hurdles where regulations and permit requirements are unclear, unfit for new purposes, or inconsistent across sectors and countries. Sharing knowledge and harmonising standards is key, including for equipment, safety and certifying emissions from different sources. Hydrogen’s complex supply chains mean governments, companies, communities and civil society need to consult regularly.

6. Engage internationally and track progress


Enhanced international co‑operation is needed across the board but especially on standards, sharing of good practices and cross-border infrastructure. Hydrogen production and use need to be monitored and reported on a regular basis to keep track of progress towards long‑term goals.

7. Focus on 4 key opportunities to further increase momentum over the next decade


By building on current policies, infrastructure and skills, these mutually supportive opportunities can help to scale up infrastructure development, enhance investor confidence and lower costs:

 


Make

the most of existing industrial ports to turn them into hubs for lower‑cost, lower-carbon hydrogen.

Use

existing gas infrastructure to spur new clean hydrogen supplies.

Support 

transport fleets, freight and corridors to make fuel-cell vehicles more competitive.


Establish

the first shipping routes to kick-start the international hydrogen trade.

 

Global demand for pure hydrogen
1975-2018

 

 

 

Demand for hydrogen


Supplying hydrogen to industrial users is now a major business around the world. Demand for hydrogen, which has grown more than threefold since 1975, continues to rise – almost entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production. As a consequence, production of hydrogen is responsible for CO2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, equivalent to the CO2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined.

 

Growing support


The number of countries with polices that directly support investment in hydrogen technologies is increasing, along with the number of sectors they target. There are around 50 targets, mandates and policy incentives in place today that direct support hydrogen, with the majority focused on transport. Over the past few years, global spending on hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration by national governments has risen, although it remains lower than the peak in 2008.

 

Current policy support for hydrogen deployment

 

 

Keeping an eye on costs

 

Dedicated electricity generation from renewables or nuclear power offers an alternative to the use of grid electricity for hydrogen production. With declining costs for renewable electricity, in particular from solar PV and wind, interest is growing in electrolytic hydrogen and there have been several demonstration projects in recent years. Producing all of today’s dedicated hydrogen output from electricity would result in an electricity demand of 3600 TWh, more than the total annual electricity generation of the European Union.

With declining costs for solar PV and wind generation, building electrolysers at locations with excellent renewable resource conditions could become a low-cost supply option for hydrogen, even after taking into account the transmission and distribution costs of transporting hydrogen from (often remote) renewables locations to the end-users.

 

Hydrogen costs from hybrid solar pv & onshore wind systems in the long term

 

 

Uses for hydrogen

 

Industry


Hydrogen use today is dominated by industry, namely: oil refining, ammonia production, methanol production and steel production. Virtually all of this hydrogen is supplied using fossil fuels, so there is significant potential for emissions reductions from clean hydrogen.

Transport


In transport, the competitiveness of hydrogen fuel cell cars depends on fuel cell costs and refuelling stations while for trucks the priority is to reduce the delivered price of hydrogen. Shipping and aviation have limited low-carbon fuel options available and represent an opportunity for hydrogen-based fuels.

Buildings


In buildings, hydrogen could be blended into existing natural gas networks, with the highest potential in multifamily and commercial buildings, particularly in dense cities while longer-term prospects could include the direct use of hydrogen in hydrogen boilers or fuel cells.

Power generation


In power generation, hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing renewable energy, and hydrogen and ammonia can be used in gas turbines to increase power system flexibility. Ammonia could also be used in coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions.

 

 

Near term practical opportunities for policy action

 

Hydrogen is already widely used in some industries, but it has not yet realised its potential to support clean energy transitions. Ambitious, targeted and near-term action is needed to further overcome barriers and reduce costs.

The IEA has identified four value chains that offer springboard opportunities to scale up hydrogen supply and demand, building on existing industries, infrastructure and policies. Governments and other stakeholders will be able to identify which of these offer the most near-term potential in their geographical, industrial and energy system contexts.

Regardless of which of these four key opportunities are pursued – or other value chains not listed here – the full policy package of five action areas listed above will be needed. Furthermore, governments – at regional, national or community levels – will benefit from international cooperation with others who are working to drive forward similar markets for hydrogen.

 

 

 

 

 

AHEAD THROUGH STRATEGIES AND SUPPLY CHAIN ​​SOLUTIONS OF THE NEXT FUTURE - SIMPLY NATURALLY BETTER THROUGH IRIDIUM HYDROGEN

 

Raw materials are crucial to the economy. They form a strong industrial base in which a wide range of goods and applications of daily life as well as modern technologies are produced. Reliable and unhindered access to certain raw materials froms worldwide a upcoming challenge to be solved. Analytical thinking, goal-oriented approaches and the fascination of "out of the box thinking" enables me to channel challenges in the daily business into opportunities and to create benefits where nobody expects them. I'm fascinated by the impossible and always motivated to initiate and realize them through innovative and creative approaches. 

 

HATVANI ROBERT - SSR - STRATEGIC SUPPLYCHAIN REDUNDANCY

 

 

 

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